Демократия? В России? (in english)


Ниже просто университетское эссе. Тема интересная, поэтому решил выложить. Писал на английском, переводить не буду. На сайт Freedomhouse советую заглянуть.
Democracy in Russia:
Rather Myth than Reality.
Russia is not a democratic country. According to Terry Karl, Senior Research Scholar of FSI/CDDRL, there are two minimal criteria of democracy: contestation and participation. Contestation means regular free and fair elections with several strong candidates. Participation stands for right to form electoral parties, right of dissent and free press. There is neither contestation, nor participation in Russia. However, officials are restricted: they have to communicate with people and intensive propaganda is needed to retain power. Political system in Russia can be classified as a hybrid regime.
In 2005 watchdog organization Freedom House changed Russia’s rating from partly free to not free. Russia has downward trend since then. You can find this information on the Freedomhouse official website. According to Freedom House, both parliamentary and presidential elections were heavily manipulated. After the parliamentary elections observers reported about numerous violations, including using of illegal ballots and incorrect counting of votes. Some of reports are presented on www.slon.ru. Governors of the regions where United Russia do not win loose their posts, as it happened with Chernogorov Alexandr, the governor of Stavropol Krai, news on lenta.ru . There was no competition during the last presidential elections. All public polls before elections showed that Medvedev would win in the first round. Since 2007 parties have to pass 7 percent threshold to be presented in Duma. This law is beneficial for United Russia. Therefore there is no contestation in Russia.
There are problems with participation too. Most of TV channels and newspapers are controlled by the government. Governing party can decide how much broadcasting time parties can use. Several journalists were killed in the last years, and most of the murders were not resolved.
One more essential problem is the lack of Checks and Balances. The majority in Duma allows United Russia to ignore other parties’ opinions. Since 2004 governors are appointed by president instead of elections. The president term was raised from four to six years.
However, the power of the government is limited. There are no independent channels, but Web is not censored and people can express their opinions relatively safely. Vedomosti, Echo Moskvy and some other media sources often criticize government. Several strikes took place during last years. After the strike in Pikalevo people attracted attention to their problems and received aid. Officials often tell about democracy principles. I think that they cultivated love for democracy and freedom in people. Therefore it gets more difficult for them to impose new restrictions.
The Economist carried out a survey to calculate democracy index for each country. Russia took the 107 rank out of 167 with the democracy index 4.48 out of 10. The highest category index for Russia is Political Participation and the lowest one is Functioning of Government. The Economist classified political system in Russia as hybrid regime, the Economist website.
As it is shown above political and civil rights are highly restricted in Russia. Both contestation and participation are limited. Political power is concentrated. International surveys show low level of freedom and democracy. At the same time, people have chance to express their opinions, can influence on political and social events, and want to retain their rights. That is why there is a hybrid regime in Russia.


писал ты? -)


Тема интересная, поэтому решил выложить. Писал на английском, переводить не буду.
Тогда уж и на немецкий переведи, я его всю жизнь учил, очень хочется ознакомится с интересной темой


язык норм, но по сути ничего нового и интересного не сказано. тред тянет максимум на дешевый пеар :smirk:


Chernogorov Alexandr, the governor of Stavropol Krai
Его вроде бы не только за это скинули, но и за памятные истории с мэром Ставрополя, а также со скорой помощью в краевом центре...
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