Нобелевские премии


На данный момент по офиц. информации Нобелевского комитета:
The Nobel Prize in Physics
David J. Gross »
H. David Politzer »
Frank Wilczek »
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Aaron Ciechanover »
Avram Hershko »
Irwin Rose »
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Richard Axel »
Linda B. Buck »
The Nobel Prize in Literature
To be announced Thursday, October 7, 1:00 p.m. at the earliest (local time)
The Nobel Peace Prize
To be announced Friday, October 8, 11:00 a.m. at the earliest (local time)
The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel
To be announced Monday, October 11, 1:00 p.m. at the earliest (local time)


Press Release: The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics
5 October 2004
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physics for 2004 "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction" jointly to
David J. Gross
Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA,
H. David Politzer
California Institute of Technology (Caltech Pasadena, USA, and
Frank Wilczek
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT Cambridge, USA.

A 'colourful' discovery in the world of quarks
What are the smallest building blocks in Nature? How do these particles build up everything we see around us? What forces act in Nature and how do they actually function?
This year's Nobel Prize in Physics deals with these fundamental questions, problems that occupied physicists throughout the 20th century and still challenge both theoreticians and experimentalists working at the major particle accelerators.
David Gross, David Politzer and Frank Wilczek have made an important theoretical discovery concerning the strong force, or the 'colour force' as it is also called. The strong force is the one that is dominant in the atomic nucleus, acting between the quarks inside the proton and the neutron. What this year's Laureates discovered was something that, at first sight, seemed completely contradictory. The interpretation of their mathematical result was that the closer the quarks are to each other, the weaker is the 'colour charge'. When the quarks are really close to each other, the force is so weak that they behave almost as free particles. This phenomenon is called ”asymptotic freedom”. The converse is true when the quarks move apart: the force becomes stronger when the distance increases. This property may be compared to a rubber band. The more the band is stretched, the stronger the force.
This discovery was expressed in 1973 in an elegant mathematical framework that led to a completely new theory, Quantum ChromoDynamics, QCD. This theory was an important contribution to the Standard Model, the theory that describes all physics connected with the electromagnetic force (which acts between charged particles the weak force (which is important for the sun's energy production) and the strong force (which acts between quarks). With the aid of QCD physicists can at last explain why quarks only behave as free particles at extremely high energies. In the proton and the neutron they always occur in triplets.
Thanks to their discovery, David Gross, David Politzer and Frank Wilczek have brought physics one step closer to fulfilling a grand dream, to formulate a unified theory comprising gravity as well – a theory for everything.

Read more about this year's prize
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David J. Gross, born 1941 (aged 63) in Washington DC, USA (American citizen). Doctor's degree in physics in 1966 at the University of California, Berkeley. Professor at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara, USA.
H. David Politzer, born 1949 (aged 55, American citizen). Doctor's degree in physics in 1974 at Harvard University. Professor at the Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology (Caltech Pasadena CA, USA.
Frank Wilczek, born 1951 (aged 53) in Queens, New York, USA (American citizen). Doctor's degree in physics in 1974 at Princeton University. Professor at the Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT Cambridge MA, USA.
Prize amount: SEK 10 million, will be shared equally among the Laureates.
Contact persons: Jonas Förare, Science Editor, phone +46 8 673 95 44, +46 703 27 72 00, kva.se and Eva Krutmeijer, Head of Information, phone +46 8 673 9 595, +46 709 84 66 38, kva.se


Эдвансед инфо по физике (скачайте картинку и поменяйте расширение на rar):


Press Release: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004
6 October 2004
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2004 "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation" jointly to
Aaron Ciechanover
Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel,
Avram Hershko
Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel and
Irwin Rose
University of California, Irvine, USA

Proteins labelled for destruction
Proteins build up all living things: plants, animals and therefore us humans. In the past few decades biochemistry has come a long way towards explaining how the cell produces all its various proteins. But as to the breaking down of proteins, not so many researchers were interested. Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose went against the stream and at the beginning of the 1980s discovered one of the cell's most important cyclical processes, regulated protein degradation. For this, they are being rewarded with this year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose have brought us to realise that the cell functions as a highly-efficient checking station where proteins are built up and broken down at a furious rate. The degradation is not indiscriminate but takes place through a process that is controlled in detail so that the proteins to be broken down at any given moment are given a molecular label, a ‘kiss of death', to be dramatic. The labelled proteins are then fed into the cells' "waste disposers", the so called proteasomes, where they are chopped into small pieces and destroyed.
The label consists of a molecule called ubiquitin. This fastens to the protein to be destroyed, accompanies it to the proteasome where it is recognised as the key in a lock, and signals that a protein is on the way for disassembly. Shortly before the protein is squeezed into the proteasome, its ubiquitin label is disconnected for re-use.
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Thanks to the work of the three Laureates it is now possible to understand at molecular level how the cell controls a number of central processes by breaking down certain proteins and not others. Examples of processes governed by ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation are cell division, DNA repair, quality control of newly-produced proteins, and important parts of the immune defence. When the degradation does not work correctly, we fall ill. Cervical cancer and cystic fibrosis are two examples. Knowledge of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation offers an opportunity to develop drugs against these diseases and others.

Read more about this year's prize
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Links and Further Reading

Aaron Ciechanover, born 1947 (57 years) in Haifa, Israel (Israeli citizen). Doctor's degree in medicine in 1981 at the Technion (Israel Institute of Technology Haifa. Professor at the Unit of Biochemistry and Director of the Rappaport Family Institute for Research in Medical Sciences at the Technion, Haifa, Israel.
Avram Hershko, born 1937 (67 years) in Karcag, Hungary (Israeli citizen). Doctor's degree in medicine in 1969 at the Hadassah Medical School of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem. Distinguished Professor at the Rappaport Family Institute for Research in Medical Sciences at the Technion (Israel Institute of Technology Haifa, Israel.
Irwin Rose, born 1926 (78 years) in New York, USA (American citizen). Doctor's degree in 1952 at the University of Chicago, USA. Specialist at the Department of Physiology and Biophysics, College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, USA.

Prize amount: SEK 10 million, will be shared equally among the Laureates.
Contact persons: Malin Lindgren, Information Officer, Phone +46 8 673 95 22, +46 709 88 60 04, kva.se
Eva Krutmeijer, Head of Information, Phone +46 8 673 95 95, +46 709 84 66 38, kva.se


Эдвансед инфо (просто переименуйте в *.pdf):


Press Release: The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
4 October 2004
The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet has today decided to award
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2004
jointly to
Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck
for their discoveries of
"odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

The sense of smell long remained the most enigmatic of our senses. The basic principles for recognizing and remembering about 10,000 different odours were not understood. This year's Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine have solved this problem and in a series of pioneering studies clarified how our olfactory system works. They discovered a large gene family, comprised of some 1,000 different genes (three per cent of our genes) that give rise to an equivalent number of olfactory receptor types. These receptors are located on the olfactory receptor cells, which occupy a small area in the upper part of the nasal epithelium and detect the inhaled odorant molecules.
Each olfactory receptor cell possesses only one type of odorant receptor, and each receptor can detect a limited number of odorant substances. Our olfactory receptor cells are therefore highly specialized for a few odours. The cells send thin nerve processes directly to distinct micro domains, glomeruli, in the olfactory bulb, the primary olfactory area of the brain. Receptor cells carrying the same type of receptor send their nerve processes to the same glomerulus. From these micro domains in the olfactory bulb the information is relayed further to other parts of the brain, where the information from several olfactory receptors is combined, forming a pattern. Therefore, we can consciously experience the smell of a lilac flower in the spring and recall this olfactory memory at other times.
Richard Axel, New York, USA, and Linda Buck, Seattle, USA, published the fundamental paper jointly in 1991, in which they described the very large family of about one thousand genes for odorant receptors. Axel and Buck have since worked independent of each other, and they have in several elegant, often parallel, studies clarified the olfactory system, from the molecular level to the organization of the cells.

The olfactory system is important for life quality
When something tastes really good it is primarily activation of the olfactory system which helps us detect the qualities we regard as positive. A good wine or a sunripe wild strawberry activates a whole array of odorant receptors, helping us to perceive the different odorant molecules.
A unique odour can trigger distinct memories from our childhood or from emotional moments – positive or negative – later in life. A single clam that is not fresh and will cause malaise can leave a memory that stays with us for years, and prevent us from ingesting any dish, however delicious, with clams in it. To lose the sense of smell is a serious handicap – we no longer perceive the different qualities of food and we cannot detect warning signals, for example smoke from a fire.

Olfaction is of central importance for most species
All living organisms can detect and identify chemical substances in their environment. It is obviously of great survival value to be able to identify suitable food and to avoid putrid or unfit foodstuff. Whereas fish has a relatively small number of odorant receptors, about one hundred, mice – the species Axel and Buck studied – have about one thousand. Humans have a somewhat smaller number than mice; some of the genes have been lost during evolution.
Smell is absolutely essential for a newborn mammalian pup to find the teats of its mother and obtain milk – without olfaction the pup does not survive unaided. Olfaction is also of paramount importance for many adult animals, since they observe and interpret their environment largely by sensing smell. For example, the area of the olfactory epithelium in dogs is some forty times larger than in humans.

A large family of odorant receptors
The olfactory system is the first of our sensory systems that has been deciphered primarily using molecular techniques. Axel and Buck showed that three per cent of our genes are used to code for the different odorant receptors on the membrane of the olfactory receptor cells. When an odorant receptor is activated by an odorous substance, an electric signal is triggered in the olfactory receptor cell and sent to the brain via nerve processes. Each odorant receptor first activates a G protein, to which it is coupled. The G protein in turn stimulates the formation of cAMP (cyclic AMP). This messenger molecule activates ion channels, which are opened and the cell is activated. Axel and Buck showed that the large family of odorant receptors belongs to the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR).
All the odorant receptors are related proteins but differ in certain details, explaining why they are triggered by different odorous molecules. Each receptor consists of a chain of amino acids that is anchored into the cell membrane and traverses it seven times. The chain creates a binding pocket where the odorant can attach. When that happens, the shape of the receptor protein is altered, leading to G protein activation.

One type of odorant receptor in each olfactory receptor cell
Independently, Axel and Buck showed that every single olfactory receptor cell expresses one and only one of the odorant receptor genes. Thus, there are as many types of olfactory receptor cells as there are odorant receptors. It was possible to show, by registering the electrical signals coming from single olfactory receptor cells, that each cell does not react only to one odorous substance, but to several related molecules – albeit with varying intensity.
Buck's research group examined the sensitivity of individual olfactory receptor cells to specific odorants. By means of a pipette, they emptied the contents of each cell and showed exactly which odorant receptor gene was expressed in that cell. In this way, they could correlate the response to a specific odorant with the particular type of receptor carried by that cell.
Most odours are composed of multiple odorant molecules, and each odorant molecule activates several odorant receptors. This leads to a combinatorial code forming an "odorant pattern" – somewhat like the colours in a patchwork quilt or in a mosaic. This is the basis for our ability to recognize and form memories of approximately 10,000 different odours.

Olfactory receptor cells activate micro regions in the olfactory bulb
The finding that each olfactory receptor cell only expresses one single odorant receptor gene was highly unexpected. Axel and Buck continued by determining the organization of the first relay station in the brain. The olfactory receptor cell sends its nerve processes to the olfactory bulb, where there are some 2,000 well-defined microregions, glomeruli. There are thus about twice as many glomeruli as the types of olfactory receptor cells.
Axel and Buck independently showed that receptor cells carrying the same type of receptor converge their processes into the same glomerulus, and Axel's research group used sophisticated genetic technology to demonstrate in mice the role of the receptor in this process. The convergence of information from cells with the same receptor into the same glomerulus demonstrated that also glomeruli exhibit remarkable specificity (see figure).
In the glomeruli we find not only the nerve processes from the olfactory receptor cells but also their contacts with the next level of nerve cells, the mitral cells. Each mitral cell is activated only by one glomerulus, and the specificity in the information flow is thereby maintained. Via long nerve processes, the mitral cells send the information to several parts of the brain. Buck showed that these nerve signals in turn reach defined micro regions in the brain cortex. Here the information from several types of odorant receptors is combined into a pattern characteristic for each odour. This is interpreted and leads to the conscious experience of a recognizable odour.

Pheromones and taste
The general principles that Axel and Buck discovered for the olfactory system appears to apply also to other sensory systems. Pheromones are molecules that can influence different social behaviours, especially in animals. Axel and Buck, independent of each other, discovered that pheromones are detected by two other families of GPCR, localized to a different part of the nasal epithelium. The taste buds of the tongue have yet another family of GPCR, which is associated with the sense of taste.
Odorant Receptors and the Organization of the Olfactory System


Балин, опять по химии биологам дали... Задолбали уже! Как будто кроме биохимии ваще ничего нету


хреново конечно, но ведь ничего такого крутого придумать видимо не могут...
но в любом случае то что они открыли подходит только под физиология и медицина


Ну это ж щас модненько
Остальное "типа" бесперспективно


Ну согласитесь, премию дали за действительно хорошую работу (как впрочем и по другим номинациям). Интересное обсуждение могло бы получиться если бы Вы привели пример выдвинутой на премию серьезной работы по чисто химической тематике, которая ее (премии) не удостоилась.
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